Alopecia: Causes, Types & How to Treat

What is Alopecia Areata?

hair loss

Alopecia causes hair to fall out in round patches, either on the scalp or other places on the body. The hair may grow back, but in most cases, it simply falls out again. The cycle of hair loss and regrowth is generally inconsistent.

What Causes Alopecia Areata?

When an autoimmune disease develops, the immune system mistakenly identifies healthy cells as foreign substances. Your immune system defends your body against such viruses, but in those with alopecia, it actively attacks hair follicles (the structures from which hair is grown). As a result, the follicles become smaller and stop producing hair

Alopecia Types

There are 3 main types of alopecia: Areata, Totalis, and Universalis.

Hair loss that appears as round patches, mainly on the scalp, is alopecia areata. It is not always lifelong, and hair often grows back within a few months.

Complete baldness and round patches of hair loss on the scalp, facial area and eyelashes is known as alopecia totalis.

Complete loss of hair on the scalp and body is known as alopecia universalis

Alopecia Areata vs Alopecia Universalis

hair loss

Alopecia universalis is an advanced form of alopecia areata. Symptoms include burning and itching and hair loss across the entire body, usually caused by another medical condition.

Alopecia and Male Pattern Baldness

Hair loss caused by alopecia differs from male pattern baldness. In alopecia, the immune system damages follicles, which prevents new hair growth. Hair loss may be temporary, but flare-ups can occur.

In contrast, male pattern baldness begins with diffused hair thinning across the scalp. It may lead to baldness that starts from the back of the scalp, rather than from the hairline.

In male pattern baldness, first the hairline recedes, then hair at the crown of the scalp falls out, and eventually a horseshoe pattern of hair forms around the head. Unlike alopecia, in cases of male pattern baldness, hair loss does not come and go–it’s usually permanent.

Causes of Alopecia


Alopecia areata is a lifelong, autoimmune condition that can be inherited from either parent. Geneticists refer to it as a “complex polygenic disease” that arises out of an interaction between multiple genes

Stress and Hair Loss

Stress takes a toll on your entire body, including your hair. “Telogen effluvium” refers to temporary hair loss that occurs as a result of trauma, stress, or a sudden shock to the body. A disruption in the hair’s natural growth cycle might trigger excessive hair loss. It is usually temporary and new hair will grow back within a few months.

Other types of extreme hair loss include:

CONDITIONSTourette’s Syndrome: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Traction alopecia, which is caused by a repeated styling practice that leads to hair loss and damage over time.


How to Treat Alopecia Areata

While no cure exists for alopecia areata, certain treatments help hair grow back more quickly:

Corticosteroids are medications that suppress the immune system, and since alopecia is an autoimmune condition, they may help relieve symptoms. Doctors administer corticosteroids in the form of a shot, pill, or topical cream. If you have alopecia, your doctor will most likely give you a shot–they’re more effective than topical ointments and pills.

Minoxidil is a hair re-growth ointment. With daily application of Minoxidil 5%, some patients will see regrowth. Your physician will likely prescribe Minoxidil with another treatment.


Diphencyprone (DPCP) works to reverse alopecia by triggering an allergic reaction. When applied to the skin, it causes a minor reaction that dermatologists believe activates the immune system, which then sends white blood cells to the scalp, potentially promoting hair growth.


Supplements for Healthy Hair

proteinironomega-3 fatty acidsvitamin B

Other supplements that promote healthy hair include:

vitamin A


Vitamin D

The Bottom Line

Alopecia is an autoimmune condition that causes mild to significant hair loss. The pattern of hair falling out and re-growing can occur for years before it stops completely. The good news is, treatments are available for those affected by this condition and it’s not life-threatening.

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