A Quick Guide To Topographic Sheet Reading

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The following sections offer a quick revision of the topographic fundamentals.

Elements of a Topography map

Topographic maps are a detailed, accurate, and graphic representation of the geographical features of a region. The myriad of features include:

· Cultural elements like settlement types, religious buildings, urban development, railways, airports, and other unique geographical features

· Hydrographical features like lakes, rivers, streams, swamps, marshes, tidal flats, etc.

· Reliefs like mountains, valleys, slopes, depression, etc.

· Local vegetation including wooded & cleared areas, vineyards and orchards

· International, territorial, administrative and geographical boundaries

The level of detailing often depends upon the scale of the map. The larger the scale, the more the details.

Reading a topographic map

The primary prerequisite for topographical sheet reading is a complete awareness of all the specific map characteristics. Go through the following points carefully for your geography college homework. They’ll help you get a perfect score on your topography sheets.

Understanding Color Usages

Black is used to represent cultural features such as buildings, railways, and power transmission lines. Additionally, geographical names, certain symbols, geographic coordinates, and exact elevations are also represented using the color black.

Blue represents water bodies like lakes, rivers, falls, rapids, swamps, and marshes. Names of water bodies are also shown in blue. Along with the above, magnetic declination labels and Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates are in blue.

Green indicates vegetation such as forests, gardens, reserves, orchards, vineyards, etc.

Interpreting contour Lines

Contour lines are a crucial aspect of topographical sheets. These lines join all places on a topography map that are at the same elevation. Contour lines are the most versatile way of representing relief features on maps. Basic properties of contour lines are:

· Every contour line passes through regions at the same elevation.

· Contour lines, thus, represent the height and gradient or slope of a landform.

· Closely spaced contour lines indicate high elevation with a steep gradient. The gap between lines increases as the slope becomes gentler.

· When two or more contours intersect each other, it indicates a vertical slope such as cliffs or waterfalls.

Identifying key features

Taking note of specific essential data helps interpret a topographical sheet with ease. These are:

Marginal Information =

Relief of the area=

Drainage=

Land use=

Transport and communications=

Settlements=

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