Introduction to Common Components of Cosmetics (I)

Have you ever think about what are the ingredients in skin care products and cosmetics? Do these ingredients have any effect? Let’s have a look in this article.

Common whitening ingredients:



Ellagic acid

Ellagic acid

As a whitening ingredient, ellagic acid has an effective anti-mutation effect; however, it has cancerous effect and should not be used too much.

Kojic acid

Kojic acid

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Natural antioxidants can be used to prevent and treat skin sunburn. It needs to be obtained from the outside world to have a good whitening and freckle effect.

Tranexamic acid

It can inhibit the enhancement of melanin, make dark spots no longer thicken and expand, effectively prevent skin pigmentation.

Niacinamide (Vitamin B3)

It acts on the melanin that has been produced and accelerates the skin's new metabolism, which can improve skin aging to a certain extent.

Fruit acid

As the name suggests, it is a variety of organic acids extracted from fruits, which are the effective ingredients found in many natural fruits or yogurt.

Fruit acid can accelerate cell shedding metabolism, soften the stratum corneum, and increase collagen.

Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid

Whitening is a long-term process, and it is impossible to achieve immediate results. For products that work immediately, pay attention to whether there are mineral ingredients such as titanium dioxide, mica and other particles added to their ingredients. The presence of such ingredients in skin care products is usually a blinding method for businesses. After applying it, it looks white and will return to the original shape after cleaning. .

Common moisturizing ingredients:


This is the structural formula of 2 chemical molecules, the upper part is squalene, and the lower part is squalane.

Squalene contains double bonds and is unstable, which is not conducive to storage and use.

Scientific research has found that squalane is a rare animal oil with high chemical stability and excellent user-friendliness. It has strong affinity and can be integrated with human sebum membranes to form a natural barrier on the skin surface. It has good affinity and anti-oxidation, and can achieve anti-wrinkle and improve roughness. Squalane can soften the keratin, make the skin feel soft and smooth, and has the effect of a closure agent, forming a protective film on the skin surface to prevent water loss.

Hyaluronic acid

It is known as the best moisturizing ingredient, recognized as Hyaluronic acid.

In general speaking, it is a natural biomolecule that exists widely in the skin and other tissues. It has an excellent moisturizing effect. A molecule of hyaluronic acid can carry more than 500 times of water, and it is called an ideal natural moisturizing factor internationally.


Ceramide is a sphingosine lipid composed of sphingosine long-chain bases and fatty acids.

Ceramide is a lipid that naturally exists in the skin and is a very important component of the skin barrier (stratum corneum), with a content of up to 40-50%."



Glycerin will fill the intercellular substance and absorb proper amount of water to maintain cell stability. It is suitable for dry skin.

Vitamin B5 (panthenol)

It has a strong moisturizing effect and is similar to the cortical membrane of the skin. It is easy to absorb and penetrate the stratum corneum on the skin surface to prevent rough skin.


Such as butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, propylene/ethylene glycol, sorbitol, etc., it is also used as a solvent and is often used as a small-molecule moisturizer in skin care products. It can retain water in the stratum corneum and has hygroscopicity.

Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF)

Such as various amino acids, lactic acid, various PCA, sugars, urea, etc.

It is an absorbent, water-soluble substance with water retention effect in human skin.


Avocado maintains skin moisture, promote skin metabolism, and inhibit skin inflammation.

To be continued in Part II…

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