Childhood Leukemia


As we know, bone marrow also produces WBC or Leucocytes. As soon as the number of mature WBC is enough, then the body sends a signal to stop new cells’ formation. But in Leukemia, these newly formed cells stay immature for a long time. Consequently, the body cannot send any signal, so new cells form inside the bone marrow. The bone marrow becomes crowded with immature and abnormal WBC.

Childhood Leukemia

Early Symptoms of Childhood Leukemia

a. Dull or pale skin

b. Weakness or feeling of tiredness

c. Headaches and Dizziness

d. Trouble in breathing

e. Fever and frequent infection

f. Bleeding gums or nosebleeds

Types of Childhood Leukemia: Leukemia typically in kids can be categorized into two major types.

A. Common types of Leukemia

a.Acute lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

b. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML):

B. Rare types of Leukemia

a. Hybrid or mixed-lineage Leukemia

b. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

c. Chronic lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL

d. Juvenile myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML):

Diagnosis of Childhood Leukemia

childhood leukemia

The initial tests include:

Blood tests

Biopsy and Bone marrow aspiration test

Spinal Tap test or Lumbar puncturecerebrospinal fluid

These tests also determine the method of treatment to be followed.

Risk factors of Childhood Leukemia

More study is needed to explore the possible reasons, but few of them are environmental factors like exposure to radiation, smoking, genetic factors, inherited problems related to immune systems, etc.

Treatment of Childhood Leukemia

Once the oncologist confirms the diagnosis, the child will undergo chemotherapy medicines. In highly developed countries, the cure rate for ALL (Acute lymphoblastic leukemia) is more than 80–90%, and for acute myeloid Leukemia, it is more than 60–70%. In developing countries, poor accessibility or affordability, malnutrition, poor tolerability to treatment, and delayed diagnosis bring down the cure rate to almost 70% in ALL and around 50% in AML.


Blood Transfusion: 

Radiation Therapy:

Bone Marrow Transplant

Treatment of Relapsing Leukemia

Despite chemotherapy, around 20% of ALL and about 40–50% of AML can come back with the disease within two to five years of initial diagnosis. This reoccurrence of infection is called relapse. Again, these children will go through a similar test like complete blood count, bone marrow evaluation to confirm the deterioration. After confirmation, they will have to undergo a higher dose of chemotherapy of a different combination or Bone Marrow Transplant.


The cancer doctor may ask about the family history of the problem and symptoms associated with the disease.


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