In chemistry, solid-phase synthesis is when its C-terminus anchors a peptide molecule to an insoluble polymer. The polymer is assembled by the successive addition of a protective amino acid that constitutes its sequence. The molecules are coordinately bonded on a solid support material and synthesized step-by-step in a single reacting vessel.
Benefits of SPPS in Comparison to Normal Synthesis
•It is a highly-efficient process.
•It is a speedy yet straightforward process.
The reaction speed can be amplified and can provide high yields when a higher reagent is added to the process. In this process, the building blocks are well-protected at all reactive functional groups. The order of de-protection can control the order of the functional group reactions.
The benefit of peptide synthesis in today's modern times is to enhance the ability to make peptides that hold great significance in biological specimens and generate unique peptides for generating desired hybrid biological models. The Solid Phase Peptide synthesis helps implement a scientist's creativity and imagination to develop something new.
The Process Involved in Synthesizing Peptides
Peptide synthesis occurs by coupling the amino acid's carboxyl group to the N-terminus peptide chain. The C-to-N synthesis is just the opposite of protein biosynthesis. The amino acid's addition to the growing peptide requires excellent precision, step-wise, and cyclic functioning.
Peptide Synthesis Resins
The original peptide antibiotics were obtained by biosynthetically extracting them from the culture of polymyxa or aeruginosa. Another method of developing synthetic peptides is chemical synthesis. There are two chemical synthesis parts- the solid-phase synthesis and the liquid phase synthesis.
The SPPS resin is a small, polymeric resin bead that functions with the reactive group such as amine hydroxyl groups. The link to the peptide chain in a step-wise manner.
The SPPS resin is insoluble in all solvents, but it swells up in most organic solvents. The better degree of swelling, the higher will be the reaction yield.
The Rink amide linker attaches via norleucine to MBHA resin. Rink Amide MBHA resin forms cleavage that can be affected by a single-step treatment with 95% of TFA.
Application of Synthetic Peptides
The invention of peptides in the fifties and sixties opened up the peptide's development process for applying it in different application areas, especially the formation of synthetic peptides. The invention also helped in the development of epitope-specific antibodies against pathogenic proteins. The invention of synthetic peptides helped advance the study of the proteins' identification and characterization.
Synthetic peptides are also used as standards and reagents in mass spectrometry-based applications.Synthetic Peptides hold a central role in the MS-based discovery and characterization, and quantitation of the protein. It is also used to make drugs against malignant cells. The synthetic peptide has helped in making a break-through in developing receptor binding or substrate recognition specificity.